Banner Advertising

What is Banner Advertising?

Banner advertising are the small rectangular advertisements appear on all sorts of Web pages and vary considerably in appearance and subject matter, but they all share a basic function: “if you click on them, your Internet browser will take you to the advertiser’s Web site.”

A bit of HTML code instructs a Web server to bring up a particular Web page when a user clicks on a certain piece of text. Banner ads are essentially the same thing, except that instead of text, the link is displayed as a box containing graphics (usually with textual elements) and sometimes animation.

Because of its graphic element, a banner ad is somewhat similar to a traditional ad you would see in a printed publication such as a newspaper or magazine, but it has the added ability to bring a potential customer directly to the advertiser’s Web site. This is something like touching a printed ad and being immediately teleported to the advertiser’s store! A banner ad also differs from a print ad in its dynamic capability. It stays in one place on a page, like a magazine ad, but it can present multiple images, include animation and change appearance in a number of other ways.

Types of Banner Ads

Like print ads, banner ads come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB) specifies eight different banner sizes, according to pixel dimensions. A pixel is the smallest unit of color used to make up images on a computer or television screen. The IAB’s standard banner sizes are:

1. 480 X 60 Pixels (Full Banner)

2. 392 X 72 Pixels (Full Banner with vertical navigation Bar)

3. 234 X 60 Pixels (Half Banner)

4. 120 X 240 Pixels (Vertical Banner)

5. 125 X 125 Pixels (Square button)

6. 125 X 90 Pixels (Button 1)

7. 125 X 60 Pixels (Button 2)

8. 88 X 31 Pixels (Micro Button)

The full banner (468 x 60) is by far the most popular, but you will see all these variations all over the Web. These are not the only banner ad shapes and sizes, either, but they are a good representation of the range of common banner ads. There is no universal file-size constraint for banner ads, but most Web sites impose their own limits on memory size, usually something like 12K to 16K. This is because banner ads add to the total file size of the page they appear on; therefore increasing the time it takes for a browser to load that page.

As you’ve probably noticed while surfing the Web, actual graphic content, or creative, varies considerably among banner ads. The simplest banner ads feature only one, static GIF or JPEG image, which is linked to the advertiser’s home page. More common is the GIF-animated banner ad, which displays several different images in succession, sometimes to create the effect of animated motion. Then there are rich media banner ads — ads that use audio, video, or Java and Shockwave programming. These banner ads, which usually have larger file sizes, are often interactive beyond their simple linking function.

How to implement Banner Advertising:

The designing of a simple banner ad is not so difficult. For example to create an image for advertising the code looks like this:

Text to be displayed

In short same as a simple hyperlink creation. Also the animated GIF banner ads aren’t much more complicated. We can also use a high quality media ad. We can use professional help for designing ads for us. Now we can get a professional banner ad for $50 or you can spend upwards of $1,000.

To make our banner ad more effective, we can also use the some of following methods:

Post banner ads on pages with related Web content — the more related, the better

Advertise a particular product or service in your banner, rather than your site generally

If you do advertise a particular product or service, link the banner ad to that part of your Web site, rather than your home page

Put banner ads at the top of the page, rather than farther down

Use simple messages rather than complicated ones

Use animated ads rather than static ones

Your graphic content should pique visitor curiosity, without being too obscure

Keep banner ad size small
If the page takes too long to load, a lot of visitors will go on to another page
One can also use the following ten tips to make an ad more effective:

1. Study the best examples online. When designing a creative piece like a banner ad, start by identifying the best banner ads that you have seen.

2. Be clear in your graphics and messaging. Your main objective is to have people take a particular action after viewing your ad. A strong, clear message will help capture their interest. Clear communication requires that you understand your message, what you are selling and the benefit that you are offering potential customers.

3. Control the file size. To minimize user frustration, you need to limit the file size of your ad. As a general rule a 468 x 60 pixel banner should be 12 kilobytes or less. The easiest way to achieve this is to limit the number of colors you use and save your banner as an animated GIF file.

4. Say it in seven words or less. This is especially important for a banner campaign, where you are limited to a small visual space. Using fewer words means that you can make the font size bigger, which increases the impact of your message.

5. Use power words. These are single words that immediately communicate a benefit. “Free,” “unbelievable,” “incredible,” “affordable,” “heartwarming” — a brainstorming session will help you create a list of words that are perfect for your campaign.

6. Select images carefully. Adding visuals is like cooking with spices. Too few will lead to a bland banner, while too many will destroy the desired effect. If you want to add an eye-catching graphic, royalty free stock photography is an inexpensive option.

7. Use contrast to capture attention. Your ad will likely include these elements: background colors, a bold text message, and a photograph or drawing, and animated. To be effective you need to have contrast between these elements. Contrast can be achieved using different font sizes and bolds and colors.

8. Limit your use of fonts. If you do use two or more fonts be sure to select fonts from different categories. There are three main font categories: serif (which have tiny “feet” on the letters), sans serif (with no decorative “feet”) and decorative (which include highly decorative and script or handwritten fonts).

9. Don’t overdo it with animation. If you plan to use animation in your ad, there are a few things to consider. You want the animation to draw the eye without offending the online viewer. When setting the animation speed, look for something that changes at a slow to moderate pace. It helps to set your animations so that they stop after three cycles; some sites may insist on this.

10. Less really is more. As you create your design, remember that less cluttered messages will make a stronger impact with the online viewer. Limit the number of elements — the colors, fonts, graphics and words — that you use in your ad and ask yourself whether your primary message is clear.

Web sites for the Banner Advertising:

Banner Exchange Programs: These programs offer a simple service. If you post a certain number of banner ads on your site, they will post your banner ad on another site. Usually, this isn’t an even exchange; you have to post more than one banner ad for every one of your banner ads they post. This is how the exchange program makes a profit. Their arrangement yields them more banner ad spaces than actual banner ads they need to place for their members, so they can sell the extra banner ad spaces to paying advertisers.

Buying Advertising Space: We can also buy a banner advertising space to place our advertisements and to do so we can use various sites.

Selling Advertising Space: Selling banner advertising space is a great way to use your site’s traffic to generate revenue, but it can be a bit tricky. The easiest option is to join a banner ad network, which will recruit advertisers, keep track of your earnings, and control banner ad placement on your site. In exchange for these services, the network will take a hefty percentage of the advertising money generated by your ad space. If your site gets a good deal of traffic, more than 100,000 impressions per month, then you should be able to join a good banner network’s CPM program.

How much money might you make through a banner ad network? Most networks are selling “run of site” ads to advertisers, and they are getting something like a $5 CPM rate for the ads. Then the network takes between 30% and 50% of the $5 as its cut. Therefore, you might expect to earn something like 0.3 cents per impression that appears on your site, or a $3 CPM rate. If your site generates 100,000 impressions per month, you can expect to receive a check for $300 every month. If you are getting paid per click, you might receive anywhere from 3 cents to 20 cents per click. 5 cents might be a typical average. If you get a 1% click rate and you have 100,000 impressions per month, that means that you might expect to receive $50 per month.


The Costs of Advertising Online

Depending on the type and scale of your campaigns, advertising online can cost you anywhere from nothing at all to many thousands. Like traditional media, advertising online can be done using many different models and strategies and the prices of these online advertisements vary widely from service to service and site to site. Being able to develop and implement an effective online advertising strategy which fits into your firm’s budget depends on knowing the factors which drive these costs.

Many websites sell advertising space on their sites to subsidize the costs of operating their sites. Paid advertising space on websites is one of the more established methods of advertising online. However, the more popular the website, the costlier their advertising space will be. If your budget permits, it’s a solid investment. Websites which have a large audience which matches up with your target market guarantee your business a large number of impressions on exactly the consumers you’re trying to reach.

You’ll get the best return on your investment in advertising online when you have a detailed knowledge of your target market and their online habits. By targeting your advertisements to exactly where your prospective customers are most likely to be, you’ll get more results at a lower cost. Study the site yourself and ask the owners for in-depth data on how their visitors behave on the site. Keep in mind that some ad placements will be more expensive than others (since they have more prominence).

Normally, buying advertising online in the form of placement on websites will be aimed at every visitor. However, a growing number of sites allow your adverts to be geo-targeted (displayed to visitors from certain locations). It’s generally a little pricier, but can be valuable to local businesses and for reaching highly targeted micro-markets. Another factor in the cost of advertising online is your content and format. Larger size, graphics, video and other multimedia content will usually mean a higher price.

Now, let’s have a look at the contextual models of advertising online. There are adverts sold on the basis of cost per 1,000 impressions (known as CPM – a model also seen on websites as well as contextual search engine based advertising) and cost per click (CPC, also known as pay per click or PPC). Both are inexpensive and available for a flat rate per a certain number of clicks or impressions. CPC advertising can cost anywhere from a few cents to several dollars per click, with larger search engines like Google being more expensive, but very effective.

There is also the cost per action (CPA) model -very cost effective, since you only pay when you get exactly what you want; but also far more expensive than CPM or CPC advertising. What approach should your business take to advertising online? Always take advantage of free advertising before investing in paid advertising. For instance, forums allow you to post links and even small banner ads in your signature – if there are active forums in your niche, make the most of them! Start small and ramp up your online advertising step by step, making a careful cost-benefit analysis as you proceed.

Andrew Long is an advertising sales consultant and expert in the field of generating revenues from websites and other media. He offers media companies a bespoke solution to selling advertising and making money from their websites and other media.

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The Benefits Of Advertising On Craigslist

Craigslist is an online community where users can exchange information, buy or sell items, seek jobs or even find friends or romantic partners. There are a number of benefits for any smart business people or Internet marketers to take advantage of on Craigslist. Two of the most important benefits are the afford ability and the ability to reach a large audience. This article will focus on these two benefits and will also offer advice on ensuring your advertising is not just reaching a large audience but is reaching your target audience.

The Price is Right

Consider the cost of advertising on Craigslist versus advertising on other websites and there is simply no comparison. The vast majority of Craigslist postings are available free of charge to those who use the website. Only a limited number of advertisements including job advertisements in Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York and brokerage listings in New York are charged a fee for posting advertisements. Even these advertisers are only charged a nominal fee for their advertisements.

This means all commercial advertisements for products and services are posted free of charge. Affiliate marketing, which offers business owners the ability to only pay the affiliate when the advertisement generates web traffic, a sale or a lead is an excellent bargain but even that is no match for the free advertising offered on Craigslist. Advertising on Craigslist becomes even more financially appealing in comparison to other advertising options where the business owner is charged for each time the advertisement appears whether or not it results in a sale being made or even a lead generated.

Reaching a Large Audience with Craigslist

In addition to affordability another benefit to advertising on Craigslist is the potential to reach a large audience. Craigslist receives approximately four billion page views per month from approximately ten million website visitors. This is appealing because it allows users to reach a large audience with only minimal effort.

Craigslist already has a large following and many Internet users already turn to Craigslist for whatever they are looking for before searching other resources. Having such a large audience means half of the work is already done for advertisers. They already have high traffic to the website, now they just need to write an eye catching and engaging advertisement that will attract customers.

A Large Audience is Not Necessarily a Target Audience

Craigslist certainly has a large pre-existing fan base of regular users but this large audience does not necessarily ensure advertisers will have a target audience just waiting for them to post their advertisement. Craigslist is an extensive online community and finding members of the target audience is more important than reaching the entire community.

Business owners can certainly invest a great deal of time and effort placing their advertisement throughout the different sections of the website but this is not likely to be effective. Craigslist is divided into a number of different sections and categories for a specific reason. This is to make it easier for users to find the information they are seeking. For this reason business owners should focus on placing their advertisement in sections that are likely to be visited by members of the target audience. Additionally, placing advertisements in multiple sections may result in the moderators of Craigslist interpreting the advertisements as spam and deleting them. Whether the advertisements are deleted as spam or rendered ineffective they are not likely to convince members of the target audience to purchase products or services.

With a little bit of research an advertisement can be placed in a category that will reach a large section of Craigslist’s audience thereby increasing the chances of acquiring more sales for little or no cost to the advertiser.

After an injury to his back Chris returned to college and began taking computer programming classes. He has been doing web design and development since 1997, and in 1999 he started his own web hosting and web design business called C-Double Web Development.


The History and Evolution of the Advertising Industry

An advertising company is a potentially very successful and enjoyable business, but only if done correctly. Advertising promotion is older than most people think, and here is a brief history of advertising companies.

There are four very influential inventions that have shaped the media and thus the advertising industry – the printing press, radio, television and the Internet. The printing press made the wide dissemination of information with words on paper possible, mainly advertisements in newspapers and magazines. Selling material had to be created and advertising agencies were born.

The first advertising agency, Volney B. Palmer, was opened in Philadelphia in 1841. By 1861 there were 20 advertising agencies in New York City alone. Among them was J. Walter Thompson, today the oldest American advertising agency in continuous existence. Radio became a commercial medium in the 1920s.

For the first time, advertising could be heard, not just seen. Soap operas, music, and serial adventures populated the new medium, and as radios appeared in virtually every home in America, sales of products advertised on the air soared. Advertisers rushed to write infectious advertising jingles, an art form that still has its place in the advertising repertoire of today.

Then television changed everything. Although TV was invented in the 1920s, it didn’t become a mass commercial medium until the 1950s when the prices of television sets began to approach affordability. Print and radio had to take a back seat because, for the first time, commercials were broadcast with sight, sound and motion.

The effect of the television on the advertising industry and the way products were sold was remarkable. Advertising agencies not only had to learn how to produce these mini movies in units of 30 and 60 seconds, they had to learn to effectively segment the audience and deliver the right commercial message to the right group of consumers.

Cable television was the next great innovation, offering a greater variety of channels with more specific program offerings. That allowed advertisers to narrowcast. Before the advent of cable television, the networks attempted to reach demographics by airing at different times throughout the broadcast period. Soap operas were broadcast during the day to reach women, news in the evening to reach an older target audience.

Cable television, on the other hand, brought with it channels like MTV that catered to young music lovers, ESPN, for (typically) male sports fans, and the Food Network, for people who love cooking (or at least love to watch others cook). These new advertising channels were delightful for advertisers who wished to target certain audiences with specific interests, though less so for the networks who saw their share of ad revenue dwindle.


Aerial Advertising

An aerial advertising is something like when a small towing airplane tows your company’s
banner behind it to advertise company through the banner. The main goal behind this is to
let your company logo or slogan be seen and remembered by thousands of potential
customers at whatever place you want and whenever you desire. The message given in such
a banner is often called aerial message. Aerial advertising is spreading like nothing now a
days due to its great capabilities to advertise at targeted audience.

Its a fact that people have the tendency to look up when they hear an airplane. This
attraction of people towards a flying airplane will make your aerial message seen and,
most importantly, remembered by various others. Many private limited companies offer aerial
advertising now a days and it has been noticed that average view time they provide for your
aerial ad is somewhat 17 seconds directly in front of the targeted area. Even if the time
seems to be shorter, the viewers want to trail such airplane banners from horizon to horizon. This way they can get your aerial advertising a lot longer. The exposure is even greater if
the pilot circles around.

Usually in aerial advertising flying billboards attached to the airplane soar at 1000 feet
high when over the land and 500 feet when over water’s edge. Surveys carried out have declared
that after 30 minutes of time nearly 88% of the people remembered seeing the aerial ad go
by and also 79% viewers remembered as which product or service was being advertised
using billboards attached to the airplane.

In aerial advertising airplanes are made to fly over at places specially targeted like over
crowded beaches, theme parks, festivals, rock concerts, race tracks, ball parks, rush hour
traffic and in fact just about anywhere as suitable. Depending on the customer’s demand
airplanes can also be made to fly in different local, regional and national markets to
advertise the aerial banner of the customer and also different types of custom aerial
billboards, like custom painted and computer generated, are created as per the
requirements to do the advertising in more effective way.

If you are looking to advertise your company name, logo, brand or product, it could be
nothing better then aerial advertising. You can find many companies providing this type of
advertising at very low cost. Also there is a great benefit as in aerial advertising you can
target any outdoor place far and wide to advertise your product or services through
billboards and aerial banners. As a result aerial advertising is far better then any other type
of advertising. Only thing is that you need to make right choice of company providing aerial
advertising services. You can also find many websites in Google of companies providing
these services.


Guide to the Latest Trends in Advertising

The easy accessibility of the Internet has taken the advertising world by storm with many companies taking to the online medium to advertise their goods and services to a global audience. However, the latest research figures are proving that the most effective advertising medium continues to be the print media.

One of the leading media agencies in the UK feels that by advertising in newspapers and magazines you can reach a more focused group of consumers who wish to buy your offerings online. According to the agency, online medium is better for making purchases because of the comfort level it offers in that people do not have to go long distances to make purchases.

On the basis of trends and studies, some of the top ad agencies feel that when it comes to advertising, newspapers and magazines prove to be more effective. This is because consumers put more trust in newspapers and magazines when compared to online advertising. They reason that this is because people who advertise in newspapers seem more genuine because they are paying for advertising for their offerings. Advertising online is in some cases free, and therefore, the chances of fraud can be high.

Some of the top ad agencies in the UK make colour advertising accessible and cost effective for small and medium sized companies to advertise in leading newspapers in the UK. The agencies pages, which appear in the weekend supplement of the newspapers, is especially dedicated to small and medium-sized companies to advertise their offerings. These pages are read by an extremely dedicated group of consumers who are looking for good online bargains which they can purchase from the comfort of their homes.

According to some ad agencies, a successful advertising strategy combines the power of both the online and offline medium. They suggest that online companies should advertise in the newspapers and magazines to win over customers and provide for online purchase methods so that they can shop from the comfort of their home at any time they want. By following this strategy, online companies can combine the best of both the worlds.

Additionally, instead of placing a classified advertisement on just any page of the newspaper, companies can advertise in a space that is completely dedicated to online companies to advertise their offerings. For example, some of the dedicated pages of the ad agencies are read by an educated and affluent group of people who know that this space is meant for people advertising online offerings.

You can also contact the representatives of reputed ad agencies who can help you decide the right newspaper or magazine to advertise in based on your target audience. The company representatives make their recommendations based on demographics, publication, location, etc, so that chances of reaching your target audience increase manifold.

By visiting the website of well know offline ad agencies, you can gain an insight into the satisfaction level of online companies who have advertised on the agency’s page and witnessed an increase in traffic. By advertising in the print media and especially on the agency’s page, you also reach the people who are not too tech savvy enough to browse through the Internet hunting for products and services. These people simply have to read your advertisement on the dedicated agency page, see the URL and log on to your website to make purchases. It is for these reasons that the latest trends in advertising are using the print media to drive traffic online where people can make purchases conveniently without having to travel large distances.


Drive Traffic To Your Site Through Pixel Advertising

What is pixel advertising?

A pixel is a small dimensional square that is on a website. These sites are divided into a dimensional grid that allows people to pick a square or squares to advertise in them. You can submit a picture to be in that pixel area. The pixel then stays on that page for a designated period of time. Some people give away free advertising. Others sell the advertising and allow you to submit your advertisement for a designated period of time. It is effective with the proper amount of advertising.

Where did it come from?

It came from a British Student. He was looking for a way to make some extra money. He thought if he could make a pixel page and sell the pixel blocks that he would be able to make a couple of bucks off of the advertising.

How does pixel advertising drive traffic to your site?

Some pixel advertisements are completely able to drive traffic because they allow affiliates to post the pixel page on their site. When you click on the link that is associated with the pixel advertisement it will take you to a place to sign up to advertise. It also allows people to click on the pixels. Lets say that they have millions of associates that are advertising the website for free on their site. That means that millions of people who visit the different websites the chance to see your website.

Pixel advertising has been creating an income for many groups.

Some create these advertising sites for income, some do it for fundraising, and yet others use it to create a portal for for niche advertisers. It is simple advertising medium and it allows people the ability to make a great income online and offline. It drives traffic to peoples websites by advertising it. People come and they click. Trust me I know from person experience that it really does work. The best pixel site to visit are the wons with good traffic. A pixel site with good traffic will tell you that they are getting traffic from certain sources, and most of the time they will tell you the sources also.

It has been speculated that pixel advertising is a fad.

It has been said that is can’t last, but rather we have seen a growth in this type of medium. It has also helped to create other types of advertising. Without this very simple version of advertising, word cloud pages, such as, wouldn’t exist. They would be creating other forms of advertising online. It is creating a different type of advertising that will continue to grow online. It has taken something as basic as banner advertising and turned in to a multi million dollar business online. Don’t expect it to disappear. You can find pixel advertising by searching for it in Google. The most recent search showed me that their were over 2 millions sites showing up in their database for pixel adverting. I would expect it to keep growing and changing over time. This is just the beginning of pixel advertising!

Curious about the latest rage in internet advertising? Come visit us at [] If you’re looking for the hottest way on the internet to advertise and promote your business then come check us out!


Website Advertising For Residual Income

Creative website advertising is a very appropriate way to proclaim the value of a good online business opportunity, and could result in a steady stream of residual income.

There is, of course, the online entrepreneur who is always and exclusively focusing his sight in the cost involved, and thus doesn’t advertise effectively his website, but if you could dig down deep into his thoughts you would find a fairly well-rooted conviction that continuous advertising is really a good thing.

It is not lack of faith in website advertising that keeps him out of it, but a lack of knowledge how to advertise his online business opportunity himself, joined to old conformist reluctance to delegate the function to a professional who would necessarily have to be a person from a “confidential source” to earn his salt.

A dilemma arises when these hired “marketing professionals” devour every dollar in the advertising budget but are not able to produce the desired results. The online entrepreneur could begin to nihilistically suppose that either there is something wrong with his online business opportunity or that advertising his website is pointless.

The problem is not “whether to advertise, “but” how to advertise”.

For advertising a website is as complex as the online business opportunity itself. It is as easy to teach a man how to make residual income and get rich as it is to teach him how to advertise. It isn’t a matter of figures and rules, but a matter of quick-witted, teachable common-sense and self-confidence joined to actual experience.

Although there are spread through the advertising world many opinions of what constitutes the base for proper website advertising, and anybody involved thinks is well informed, there are certain qualified characteristics that can’t be avoided.

The advertiser’s essential qualifications, the characteristics of a good online entrepreneur should be based first of all on imagination, to produce in the potential costumer the wish for the product or service offered, then creativity to maintain the created desire in the costumer, and perseverance to not only acquire, but also continue to preserve a costumer base.

Creative website advertising is more than capable of arousing anyone’s curiosity initially, and to keep that intrinsic curiosity fixed until the advertisement has been rationally assimilated.

Of course, you’ve got to have a good online business opportunity to exploit. You may pass off a fraudulent online scam for a time; you can’t keep a poor thing up, no matter how well and how much creativity is used when advertising a web page. This is an advertising principle that should be branded with fire in every online entrepreneur’s forehead.

The right website advertising will do a great deal. It will persuade people, for instance, to eat a certain kind of food, but it will not digest it. If the food isn’t digestible the best creative advertising in the world will not induce people to continue stuffing themselves with it.

There is no such thing as good advertising for a poor proposition-“good” meaning honest, effective and continuous. But the right kind of website advertising will construct a way to earn residual income, and, backed by a meritorious online business opportunity, profitable results just as surely as the sun shines.


Professional Advertising Agencies

The success of any business depends on the way messages are communicated to existing and prospective customers, competitors, advertisers, suppliers and other people important to the business.

Today there are many modes of communication, beginning with the most basic and rudimentary means of word-of-mouth to advertising on the Internet. With so many options in advertising, from the traditional newspapers and magazines to radios and television to the modern phenomenon of the Internet and SMS advertising, how does one know what is best for the product? How should one advertise, in order that the message stands out and reaches the target market? To address needs such as these, there are professional advertising agencies.

Professional advertising agencies are external companies that provide for the marketing and advertising needs of other businesses and organizations. Advertising agencies offer a full range of advertising services like advice based on market studies, popular culture, trends and advanced sales techniques. Because they are independent, they can be objective about a client’s business needs.

What any professional advertising company would do for a product is to begin by basically understanding the product, its unique selling proposition (USP) and the kind of people it is meant for. After this, the media in which it should be advertised is decided. Then the creative team of the agency conceptualises the message and designs the advertisement.

Today, a professional advertising agency involves a whole group of people that includes market researchers, planners, conceptualizers, copywriters, illustrators and a marketing team.

There are also special teams in each ad agency, each dealing and specializing in a different form of media. For example, there will be different specialists and teams for the print media, radio, television and the Internet.

What agency is best for one’s need depends on factors like the budget (both the advertising budget and budget for hiring and retaining an agency) and the type of advertising that the advertiser basically thinks would be good for the product.



Measuring The Effectiveness Of Your Advertising Campaign

How do you measure the effectiveness of your advertising? Do you look only at whether or not you have had an increase in sales or enquires subsequent to the publication of an advertisement, or do you include product or brand awareness in your evaluations?

The most suitable criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of advertising, depends on a number variables, such as the advertising goals, the type of media used, the cost of evaluation, the value that the business or advertising agency places on evaluation measures, the level of precision and reliability required, who the evaluation is for and the budget. It is difficult to accurately measure the effectiveness of a particular advertisement, because it is affected by such things as the amount and type of prior advertising, consumer brand awareness, the availability of cost effective evaluation measures, the placement of the advertising and a range of things about the product itself, such as price and even the ability of the target audience to remember.

There are a number of different models for measuring advertising effectiveness.

o E. Pomerance suggests that advertising agencies might attempt to measure effectiveness under the five headings of Profits, Sales, Persuasion, Communication and Attention (Wheatley, 1969, p.91). He uses a cube diagram to illustrate how to evaluate advertising that recognises the effect of repeated exposures (Wheatley, 1969, p.93).

o Lavidge and Steiner suggest a model for ‘predictive measurement of advertising effectiveness’ (Wheatley, 1969, p.7), which recognises various stages of purchasing behaviour, and suitable measures for each stage. Kotler and Armstrong call these stages, ‘Buyer readiness stages’ (1996, p.463-464). They may be viewed like this: Awareness(TM) Knowledge(TM) Liking(TM) Preference(TM) Conviction(TM) Purchase (Wheatley, 1969, p.7).

o Kotler and Armstrong suggest that two areas need to be evaluated in an advertising programme. They call them the ‘communication effect’ and ‘the sales effect (1996, p.507-508). To evaluate the sales effect, company information about sales and sales expenditure would be needed. To evaluate the communication effect, Kotler and Armstrong (1996, p.507-508), suggest using a number of research tests. They suggest that these evaluation measures are not perfect.

Surveys and brand/product recognition tests after an advertising campaign are sometimes used in a two pronged way to advertise and gather evaluation information.

Effectiveness of online advertising is sometimes measured in terms of the number of page views collected through various forms of counters and search engine page rankings.

One cost effective way of evaluating the effectiveness of the advertisement in terms of sales and movement towards purchasing is what Kotler and Armstrong (1996, p.480) call Integrated Direct Marketing. It is marketing that has a response section which can lead to more appropriate communication between the company and the prospect. This can also give the company the opportunity to trigger further movement towards purchasing, so it has the potential to have a greater impact on sales than a similar advertisement without the response section. It is not only online advertisers who are using this method of requiring an email contact address and giving the customer a choice of receiving more information or newsletters about their product/s. Vouchers and coupons have been used in a similar way.

All advertisements have the potential to trigger some form of purchasing behaviour.

Effectiveness may have more to do with the readiness of the viewer to consider the benefits the advertisement promotes, than the advertisement itself. It may be more cost effective to invest in finding creative ways to measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign that is part of an advertising campaign in itself, but at the end of the day your goals are the key. It may come down to estimating how happy you are with what you are doing.

Jennifer Phillips has published 5 books and created many websites.


Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (1996). Principles of Marketing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Wheatley, J. (Editor). (1969). Measuring Advertising Effectiveness. Selected Readings. Ontario: AMA Reprint Series. Richard D. Irwin Inc.